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Llinux系统(Centos/Ubuntu/Debian)弹性云系统盘扩容方法

更新时间:2021-11-10

警告:

1.调整过分区管理方式的,例如lvm管理方式,请忽略此教程。

2.ubuntu18系统暂不支持脚本扩容,请手动扩容,参看下面ubuntu18部分,用parted操作

 

脚本自动处理(推荐)

SSH登录服务器下载自动执行脚本 :

wget -O auto_expansion.sh http://downinfo.myhostadmin.net/vps/auto_expansion.sh && bash auto_expansion.sh && rm -rf auto_expansion.sh

手工处理方法

红色为您要键入的指令,绿色为需要注意的内容,蓝色为说明

 

特别提醒:删除分区后一定要先建立分区再保存,删除后点了保存会导致数据丢失,如果对linux不熟悉的,建议提交维护工单我司手工处理,费用100元。该操作有风险,为避免误操作导致数据丢失,操作前请对您的重要数据进行备份!

 


centos6用gdisk工具


Centos:
[root@ebs-89713 ~]yum -y install gdisk        //安装分区工具

[root@ebs-89713 ~]gdisk /dev/vda        //操作根分区磁盘

Command (? for help): p    //查看分区

Disk /dev/vda: 104857600 sectors, 50.0 GiB

Logical sector size: 512 bytes

Disk identifier (GUID): B7172F0B-2C30-4535-981D-F0ED8B4A6065

Partition table holds up to 128 entries

First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 104857566

Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries

Total free space is 41945021 sectors (20.0 GiB)

 

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name

   1            2048        62914559   30.0 GiB    8300  Linux filesystem    //注意这个值

Command (? for help): d        //删除分区

Using 1

 

Command (? for help): 1

b       back up GPT data to a file

c       change a partition's name

d       delete a partition

i       show detailed information on a partition

l       list known partition types

n       add a new partition

o       create a new empty GUID partition table (GPT)

p       print the partition table

q       quit without saving changes

r       recovery and transformation options (experts only)

s       sort partitions

t       change a partition's type code

v       verify disk

w       write table to disk and exit

x       extra functionality (experts only)

?       print this menu

 

Command (? for help): n

Partition number (1-128, default 1): 1

First sector (34-104857566, default = 2048) or {+-}size{KMGTP}: 2048   //刚才记录的

Last sector (2048-104857566, default = 104857566) or {+-}size{KMGTP}:   //直接回车

Current type is 'Linux filesystem'

Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300):            //直接回车

Changed type of partition to 'Linux filesystem'

 

Command (? for help): w

 

Final checks complete. About to write GPT data. THIS WILL OVERWRITE EXISTING

PARTITIONS!!

 

Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): y

OK; writing new GUID partition table (GPT) to /dev/vda.

Warning: The kernel is still using the old partition table.

The new table will be used at the next reboot.

The operation has completed successfully.

 

[root@ebs ~]#reboot                        //重启让分区生效

[root@ebs ~]#resize2fs -f /dev/vda1                 //开始扩容根分区,如果是centos8.x系统需要使用这个命令:xfs_growfs /dev/vda1

resize2fs -f /dev/vda1

resize2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

Filesystem at /dev/vda1 is mounted on /; on-line resizing required

old desc_blocks = 2, new_desc_blocks = 4

Performing an on-line resize of /dev/vda1 to 13106939 (4k) blocks.

The filesystem on /dev/vda1 is now 13106939 blocks long.

 

[root@ebs ~]#df -vh                            //完成,查看新的根分区大小

 

 

 

centos7,centos8用fdisk工具

 

 

[root@ebs-89713 ~]# fdisk /dev/vda

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

 

Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.

Be careful before using the write command.

 

 

Command (m for help): p

 

Disk /dev/vda: 53.7 GB, 53687091200 bytes, 104857600 sectors

Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disk label type: dos

Disk identifier: 0x000c1d0e

 

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

/dev/vda1            2048    83886079    41942016   83  Linux

 

Command (m for help): d

Selected partition 1

Partition 1 is deleted

 

Command (m for help): n

Partition type:

   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)

   e   extended

Select (default p): p

Partition number (1-4, default 1): 1

First sector (2048-104857599, default 2048): 2048

Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-104857599, default 104857599): 104857599

Partition 1 of type Linux and of size 50 GiB is set

 

Command (m for help): w

The partition table has been altered!

 

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

 

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.

The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at

the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)

Syncing disks.

 

[root@ebs-89713 ~]# reboot                        //重启让分区生效

 

重启完,重新登陆服务器

centos7系统执行:

[root@ebs-89713 ~]# resize2fs -f /dev/vda1   //开始扩容根分区

centos8系统执行:

[root@ebs-89713 ~]# xfs_growfs /dev/vda1  //开始扩容根分区

 

[root@ebs-89713 ~]# df -vh   //完成,查看新的根分区大小

 

 

 

Ubuntu16,Ubuntu20,debian8,debian9用parted工具

 

[root@ebs-89713 ~] parted /dev/vda

(parted) unit b

(parted) print

Model: Virtio 块设备 (virtblk)

磁盘 /dev/vda: 107374182400B

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

分区表:msdos

 

数字  开始:    End           大小          类型     文件系统  标志

 1    1048576B  32211206143B  32210157568B  primary  ext4      启动

 

(parted) rm 1               //删除1分区,记1的开始   删除2分区,记2分区的开始

警告: Partition /dev/vda1 is being used. Are you sure you want to continue?

是/Yes/否/No? yes

错误: Partition(s) 1 on /dev/vda have been written, but we have been unable to inform the kernel of the change,

probably because it/they are in use.  As a result, the old partition(s) will remain in use.  You should reboot

now before making further changes.

忽略/Ignore/放弃/Cancel? I

(parted) mkpart

分区类型?  primary/主分区/extended/扩展分区? p

文件系统类型?  [ext2]?

起始点? 1048576B     //删除1分区,记1的开始   删除2分区,记2分区的开始

结束点? 100% 

(parted) print

Model: Virtio 块设备 (virtblk)

磁盘 /dev/vda: 107374182400B

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

分区表:msdos

 

数字  开始:    End            大小           类型     文件系统  标志

 1    1048576B  107374182399B  107373133824B  primary  ext4

 

(parted) quit

信息: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

 

[root@ebs-89713 ~]# reboot                        //重启让分区生效

 

重启完,重新登陆服务器

[root@ebs-89713 ~]# resize2fs -f /dev/vda1   //开始扩容根分区

[root@ebs-89713 ~]# df -vh   //完成,查看新的根分区大小

 

 

ubuntu18(系统盘存在两个分区vda1,vda2)用parted工具

 

root@ebs-89713:~# parted /dev/vda

GNU Parted 3.2

Using /dev/vda

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted) unit b

(parted) print

Warning: Not all of the space available to /dev/vda appears to be used, you can fix the GPT to use all of the space (an extra 20971520 blocks) or continue

with the current setting?

Fix/Ignore? Fix

Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk)

Disk /dev/vda: 42949672960B

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

Disk Flags:

 

Number  Start     End           Size          File system  Name  Flags

 1      1048576B  2097151B      1048576B                         bios_grub

 2      2097152B  32211206143B  32209108992B  ext4

 

(parted) rm 2

Warning: Partition /dev/vda2 is being used. Are you sure you want to continue?

Yes/No? Yes

Error: Partition(s) 2 on /dev/vda have been written, but we have been unable to inform the kernel of the change, probably because it/they are in use.  As a

result, the old partition(s) will remain in use.  You should reboot now before making further changes.

Ignore/Cancel? I

(parted) mkpart

Partition name?  []?     //直接回车

File system type?  [ext2]?  //直接回车

Start? 2097152B    //上面number 2中的start起始位置

End? 100%

(parted) print

Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk)

Disk /dev/vda: 42949672960B

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

Disk Flags:

 

Number  Start     End           Size          File system  Name  Flags

 1      1048576B  2097151B      1048576B                         bios_grub

 2      2097152B  42948624383B  42946527232B  ext2

 

(parted) quit

 

 

root@ebs-89713:~# reboot  //重启让分区生效

 

重启完,重新登陆服务器

root@ebs-89713:~# resize2fs -f /dev/vda2   //开始扩容根分区

 

root@ebs-89713:~# df -vh   //完成,查看新的根分区大小

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